Robert Sapolsky on the Limbic System (por StanfordUniversity)

  • olfactory bulb takes up 40% of a rodent brain’s projections
  • rhine encephalon — originally viewed as to do with olfaction in all species
  • gathers whatever sense-data pertains to emotions
  • Paul McLean’s triune brain (phylogenetic conservation): hypothalamuspituitarybrainstemmidbrain⊕thyroid⊕pancreas⊕heart (robotic, boring—until it goes wrong) + the limbic system (mostly a mammalian invention: birds, reptiles, fish have less complex limbic systems) ⊕ emotional complexity + cortex (gleaming analytical machine of cognitive expertise — greatly expanded in vertebrates, in mammals, in primates, in us — cortex tied to limbic system, not independent)
  • decisions made under duress
  • think about your own mortality (kicking out “CRH”)
  • so limbic influences cortex and vice versa
  • we are “a fancy species”
  • Odene’s curse — lose the capacity for automatic breathing (you die of sleep deprivation)
  • Antonio DiMasio, Descartes’ Error
  • James Pabes
  • the limbic regions compete to control the hypothalamus (they can shush each other up)
  • edge/network/synaptic distance to the hypothalamus
  • every sense has to go through ge;3 synapses to tell the limbic system anything—except olfaction can hop 1.
  • olfaction takes up only 5% of our brain
  • grey matter (nuclei) vs white matter (axon cables wrapped in myelin)
  • amygdala, hippocampus, septum, mammilary bodies, hypothalamus, thalamus, prefrontal cortex
  • frontal cortex: where am I being touched? which note are you playing? how do I do long division? which limb do I want to move? plus long-term planning, gratification postponement, emotional regulation, impulse control
  • frontal cortex is most recently evolved, relatively largest in humans, not fully mylenated until age 25;size of prefrontal cortex in primates grows as size of typical social group
  • amygdala tells you to be afraid and pings the hippocampus: “Hey, remember to be afraid of this in future”

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